WASSCE / WAEC Government Syllabus

WASSCE / WAEC Government Syllabus

GOVERNMENT

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AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

This syllabus aims at assessing the candidates’ ability to

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(a)define the concepts of Government and show their understanding of its principles, institutions and processes.

(b)recognize their role as an informed citizens and their contributions towards the achievement of national development.

(c)evaluate the successes, failures and problems of governments in West Africa.

(d)analyse the constitutional developments and processes of colonial and post – independent government.

(e)appreciate the role of their country as a member of the international community.

SCHEME OF THE EXAMINATIONS

There will be two papers – Paper 1 and Paper 2, both of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be composite and will be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1: This will consist of fifty multiple-choice objective questions drawn from the entire syllabus. Candidates will be required to answer all the questions in 1 hour for 40 marks.

PAPER 2: This will be a 2-hour essay type test consisting of two sections, Sections A and B as follows:

Section A: Elements of Government

Shall contain five questions out of which candidates shall be required to attempt any two.

Section B: Political and Constitutional Developments in West Africa and International Relations

Shall contain sets of five questions each; one set for one member country. Each candidate is to answer two questions chosen from the set on the country in which he/she is taking the examination.

The paper shall carry 60 marks.

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DETAILED SYLLABUS

SECTION A: ELEMENTS OF GOVERNMENT

1.MEANING AND SCOPE OF THE SUBJECT MATTER – GOVERNMENT

(i)Government as an institution of the state

.

Definition of state, features, structure and functions.

(ii)Government as a process or art or governing.

(iii)Government as an academic field of study – reasons for studying government.

2.BASIC CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNMENT

(i)Basic concepts – State, *Society, *Nation, Power, Authority, Legitimacy, Sovereignty, Democracy, Political Culture and Socialization, Communalism, Feudalism and oligarchy, *Liberalism, Socialism, Communism, Capitalism, Fascism, Aristocracy, Totalitarianism.

Meaning and features.

(ii)Basic principles – Rule of Law, Fundamental Human Rights, Separation of Powers/Checks and Balances, Constitutionalism, Political participation, Representative Government, Centralization and Decentralization – (Delegated Legislation, Devolution and Decentralization).

3.CONSTITUTIONS

(i)Definition and Sources

(ii)Functions

(iii)Types and Features, (Written and Unwritten, Rigid and Flexible).

4.ORGANS OF GOVERNMENT

The Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary – Judicial Independence. (Types, Structure, Composition/membership; Functions; powers and limitations).

5.STATE STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF GOVERNMENT

(a)Types – Unitary, Federal, Confederal, Presidential or Non-parliamentary,Parliamentary or Cabinet, Monarchical and Republican.

Meaning, types, features, merits and demerits.

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6.CITIZENSHIP

Meaning, mode of acquisition, rights, duties and obligations of individuals in the state. Means of safeguarding rights of citizens.

7.POLITICAL PARTIES AND PARTY SYSTEMS

(i)Political Parties – definition, organization/structure, and functions.

(ii)Party Systems – definition, types, merits and demerits.

8.PRESSURE GROUPS, PUBLIC OPINION AND MASS MEDIA

(i)Pressure Groups – definition, types, mode of operation and functions;

(ii)Public opinion – definition, formation, Measurement and importance;

(iii)Mass Media – definition, roles and impact.

9.THE ELECTORAL SYSTEMS, PROCESSES AND ELECTORAL MANAGEMENT BODY

(a)Electoral Systems and Processes

(i)Election- Meaning and purpose of elections.

(ii)Franchise – meaning, and limitations.

(iii)Types, advantages and disadvantages of Electoral Systems.

(b)Electoral Management Body – definition, function, problems/constrains.

10.PUBLIC/CIVIL SERVICE ADMINISTRATION

(i)Public/Civil Service – Meaning, Structure, Characteristics and Functions.

(ii)Public/Civil Service Commission –meaning and Functions.

(iii)Public Corporations – definition, purposes, functions, control, challenges, need for commercialization and privatization.

(iv)Local Governments – Meaning, structure, Purposes, Functions, Sources of revenue, control and problems.

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SECTION B: POLITICAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL DEVLEOPMENTS IN WEST AFRICA AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

11.PRE-COLONIAL POLITICAL SYSTEM OF CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES

The Structural Organization of the following:

(a)

Nigeria

– Hausa/Fulani, the Yoruba and the Igbo.

(b)

Ghana

– The Akan and the Talensi.

(c)Sierra Leone – The Mende and Temme.

(d)The Gambia – The Wolof, Mandingo and Jola.

(e)

Liberia

– The Vai and the Kru.

12.COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION

(i)The Policy and Structure of the British Colonial Administration – Crown Colony, Protectorate and Indirect Rule.

(ii)The Policy of French Colonial Administration – Assimilation and Association (Loi Cadre).

(iii)Impact, Advantages and disadvantages of Colonial Rule.

13.NATIONALISM IN CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES

(i)Nationalism: Meaning, factors and effects.

(ii)Key Nationalist leaders/movements and their contributions.

14.CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTS IN CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES

(i)Pre-Independence Constitutions –

(a) Nigeria (features)

Clifford 1922

Richards 1946

Macpherson 1951

Littleton 1954

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(b) Ghana (features, merits and demerits)

Clifford 1916

Guggisberg 1925

Burns 1946

Arden Clarke 1951

Nkrumah 1954

(c) Sierra Leone (features, merits and demerits)

Slatter 1924

Stevenson 1947

Beresford Stooke 1951

The 1956 and 1958

Constitutions.

(d) The Gambia (features, merits and demerits)

The 1947, 1951,

1954, 1960, 1962 and 1963

Constitutions.

(ii)Post-Independence Constitutions – Features

(a)

Nigeria

Independence Constitution, 1960

Republican Constitution 1963

The 1979 and 1989 Constitutions

1999 Constitution – Origin, features, strength and

Weaknesses.

(b)

Ghana

Independence Constitution, 1957

Republican Constitution 1960

2nd Republican Constitution 1969

3rd Republican Constitution 1979

4th Republican Constitutions 1992.

(c)

Sierra Leone

Independence Constitution 1961

Republican Constitution 1971

The 1978 and 1991 Constitutions,

(d)The Gambia – Independence Constitution 1965

Republican Constitution 1970.

2nd Republican Constitution 1997

(e) Liberia

Independence/Republican Constitution 1947

2nd Republican Constitution 1985

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15.DEVELOPMENT OF MAJOR POLITICAL PARTIES IN THE CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES

Nigeria

Sierra Leone

The Gambia

Liberia

Formation, Objectives, Sources of Finance, Achievements and Failures

16.MILITARY RULE IN THE CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES.

Nigeria

Ghana;

Sierra Leone

The Gambia

Liberia

Causes, effects and various military regimes.

17.FEDERAL/UNITARY SYSTEMS OF GOVERNMENT IN WEST AFRICA

Nigeria

Sierra Leone

The Gambia

Liberia

Origin, Factors, Structure, Features and Problems

18.FOREIGN POLICIES OF THE CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES

Nigeria

Ghana

Sierra Leone

The Gambia

Liberia

Definitions, Factors, objectives, advantages and disadvantages.

19.INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

The United Nations Organizations (UNO),

The Commonwealth of Nations,

African Union (AU) – NEPAD,

The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).

Origin, aims/objectives, achievements and problems.

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WASSCE GOVERNMENT

SUGGESTED READING LIST

S/N

AUTHOR

TITLE

1.

ADU BOAHEN, A

Ghana Evolution and Change in the 19th and 20th Centuries

2.SHILLINGTON K.Ghana and the Rawlings Factor

3. HODGKIN T.

African Political Parties

4.GARBRAH H. K.Foreign Policies of Major Countries, Subject Publications, New Delhi

5.ADDAE P. G.Senior Secondary School Government Bks. 1&2

6.

NOFIU S. O. A.

A – ONE in Government

7.

ECHIEFU S. M

Modern Government

8.

APPADORAI A.

The Substance of Politics

9.

PRICE J. H.

Political Institutions in West Africa

10.

LEEDS C. A.

Political Studies

11.

AMOA G. Y.

Groundwork of Government in West Africa

12.

DARE AND OYEWOLE

A Textbook of Government for Senior Secondary School

13.

OYEDIRAN AND CO.

Government for Senior Secondary School.

14.

FRANCIS ADIGWE

Essentials of Government

15.

DENNIS AUSTIN

Politics in Ghana 1946-1960

16

PRAH ISAAC

Government for Senior Secondary School

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